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Ques/6 PT

Ques/6 PT

Instructions: Response must be at least 310 words written in current APA format with at least two academic references cited. References must be within the last five years. Response must extend, correct/refute, or add additional nuance.

Musculoskeletal Function:


Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It develops when cartilage, the flexible tissue that allows bones in a joint to glide over each other, breaks down. Osteoarthritis causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of the affected joints. While it is most common among adults over 65, people of any age can develop this condition. Osteoarthritis is sometimes also referred to as wear-and-tear arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and degenerative arthritis. In short terms, Osteoarthritis is inflammation of the joint.

On the other hand, Osteoarthrosis means degeneration of the joint. (Tanchev, 2017)

Some of the risks factors that predispose this patient to osteoarthritis are: family history of osteoporosis; weight (she is overweight, and she also expressed that she gained 20 pounds over the last nine months); another predisposing factor will be her advanced age, since the more older the patient, the higher the risk factor for osteoarthritis.  


Osteoarthritis (OA) typically begins later in a person’s life, with the onset of symptoms happening slowly. With OA, patients experience symptoms such as achy, tender joints, but have little to no swelling. Additionally, those living with OA experience morning stiffness that typically lasts 1 hour—and stiffness typically returns at the end of the day or after periods of physical activity. OA symptoms are often limited to one set of joints—including large joints like the hips, knees, and spine, as well as smaller joints like the finger joints closest to the fingernails or thumbs—with symptoms beginning on one side of the body and spreading to the other side. If several joints are affected by OA, it is known as generalized osteoarthritis. In the case of osteoarthritis, cartilage (tissue that provides a gliding surface for bones inside a joint) has broken down. This breakdown process creates resistance in the joint when it is used, which causes pain and discomfort. In some cases where osteoarthritis is far advanced, the shape of the joints can also become distorted. Some tests that could be done to test for Osteoarthritis are: X-Rays, MRI, Lab tests like blood tests (although there is no blood test specifically for Osteoarthritis, certain tests can help rule out other causes of joint pain, like rheumatoid arthritis) and joint fluid analysis. (Hunter, & Bierma-Zeinstra, 2019)

Unlike osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis can happen at any point in a person’s life and affects the entire body. With RA, patients typically experience a rapid onset of symptoms—including painful, swollen, and stiff joints—in as little as a few weeks to a few months. Additionally, those living with RA experience morning stiffness that typically lasts longer than 1 hour, and fatigue and a feeling of being ill are commonly present. RA is often a symmetrical type of arthritis, which means it affects both small and large joints—including hands, wrists, elbows, or balls of the feet—on both sides of the body simultaneously. Anyone affected by rheumatoid arthritis has chronic inflammation in their joints, which means that the whole joint is breaking down. Therefore, rheumatoid arthritis does not only affect the cartilage. With RA, the joints then become swollen and tender, which is known as synovitis. The continuous pain, which is present both at rest and during exertion, may be so intense that anyone affected is prevented from carrying out simple everyday tasks. Anything from getting out of bed to brushing teeth can be difficult to do. Additionally, it is common for those living with RA to feel tired and depressed. Some diagnostics tests are: Blood tests, and Imaging tests like X-rays, MRI, and ultrasound.


We first need to explain to the patient that there is no cure for Osteoarthritis, but we can prevent the condition from going worse with time. We can start therapy to treat the symptoms, for example lifestyle measures such as maintaining a healthy weight and performing regular exercise; also she could benefits from supportive treatment like: TENS, hot and cold packs, assistive devices due to the mobility limitations that this cause; she could also benefit from Physical and Occupational therapy.

Other treatments would be: cortisone and lubricant injections, joint replacement. Also medications to help her relieve pain, like Acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and Duloxetine (used to treat chronic pain)


To handle the patient’s concern with Osteoporosis, first I would explain her about the disease. Then I would proceed to perform some tests like bone marrow density test. Then I would also talk to her about ways of preventing the disease, that she needs to loose weight and engage in a healthier lifestyle, like start doing exercise, eating healthy food.

Neurological Function: 


The most common risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease are age, a higher age increases the condition’s risk. Second would be a family history of Alzheimer’s disease if a first-degree relative had or currently present with the disease. Third is sex, where it appears that more women are at higher risk than men because they generally live longer. (Bondi, Edmonds, & Salmon, 2017)


Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia, where it encompasses phases of pre-dementia and dementia. The memory of individual changes and its biomarkers are evidence for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease. There is a slow decline in function and cognition with the early loss of awareness. Vascular dementia is a slow progression with signs of focal neurologic dementia presenting stepwise. Vascular dementia accompanies low processing speed, difficulty in retrieval, mild motor signs, and dysexecutive syndrome. On the other hand, Dementia with Lewy body is a spectrum of movement, autonomic, and cognitive disorders. It involves rigidity of muscles, visual hallucinations, alpha-synuclein deposits in neurons, and disturbances in sleep. Frontotemporal dementia is the focal atrophy of temporal and frontal lobes visible on MRI and looks like a knife-edge. Its onset is at a younger age, with behavior and personality changes, language impairment, and strong familial components.


Explicit memory is a memory that can be intentionally and consciously recalled. This is your memory of riding a bike, of falling over the handlebars and skinning your knee. Implicit memory, which is an experiential or functional form of memory that cannot be consciously recalled. This is your memory of how to ride a bike or how to balance. These are often not tied to a visual memory but are more like muscle memory.


The diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease involve three stages. The first stage is preclinical, where there are brain and nerve cell changes that may be in progress with no evidence of significant symptoms clinically. The second stage is a mild cognitive impairment marked by thinking problems and memory symptoms greater than average for a person’s education and age. Still, it does not interfere with the individual’s independence. The third stage is Alzheimer’s dementia, where symptoms like difficulty in finding words, visual difficulties, and memory loss are substantial for impairing a person’s functional ability independently.


This patient’s therapeutic approaches with Alzheimer’s disease target the amyloid cascade that requires novel treatment strategies. The risk genes are targeted to modulate the cell’s microglial state and slow down the patient’s condition from progressing. Stimulation of antibody-mediated triggering receptor of myeloid cells 2 is among the approaches which modify the microglial function and provide a chance for her condition’s treatment.

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