My task is only to give a positive opinion of these 2 discussions. In total, I need 2 replies. The 2 discussions are these:
Discussion # 1 :
The Theory of Self-Efficacy Critique
If one has a high level of self-efficacy, they tend to feel they will succeed in their endeavors. According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability to plan and carry out the actions required to manage potential occurrences (Bahari et al., 2019). These concepts have an impact on how people feel, act, and think. Self-efficacy affects the goals we set, how we accomplish them and assess our achievement. Our self-belief in our ability to succeed affects how we perceive, behave, and react to our place in society.
Self-efficacy may be developed and affected by experiences and responses, although it is still widely thought to be intrinsic. For instance, mastering experiences can promote a high sense of effectiveness because when we perform a task well, we feel more self-sufficient. However, self-efficacy can be hindered and diminished if a task or challenge is not handled properly. Social influence may also be used to enhance self-efficiency. For instance, witnessing what people who are similar to themselves can do via effort “raises viewers’ notions that they too possess the skills to master parallel activities to succeed,” according to Bandura (Bahari et al., 2019). Social influence has the power to persuade individuals that they have the skills and information needed to succeed. People are able to overcome self-doubt and focus on providing the task at hand with their best effort when they hear verbal praise from others. Moreover, since psychological responses dictate how we react to situations and how we feel emotionally, they substantially impact self-efficacy as well. For instance, how someone perceives their abilities in a certain situation might be influenced by their degree of stress, physical reactions, cognitive factors, and attitudes.
The theory of Self-Efficacy states that people have a self-efficacy belief in a given ability. In this regard, I contend that there is a lack of predictive power in the hypothesis. Besides, it has been discovered that task approaches, learning, and motivation have little to do with self-efficacy. Moreover, I think there is a lack of logical development and coherence in the self-efficacy thesis. For example, how self-efficacy beliefs are formed, or how they affect action needs to be better explained by the theory clearly and consistently. The theory also does not always make sense in relation to other ideas or reality. Self-efficacy theory has been subject to external criticism centered on complexity and real convergence (Toledano et al., 2019). The complexity of the self-efficacy hypothesis has been criticized since the theory does not provide a concise and obvious explanation of the development of self-efficacy beliefs or how they affect behavior. The theory may not also be consistent with facts or with alternative theories.
Bahari, G., Scafide, K., Krall, J., Mallinson, R. K., & Weinstein, A. A. (2019). Mediating role of self‐efficacy in the relationship between family social support and hypertension self‐care behaviours: A cross‐sectional study of Saudi men with hypertension. International journal of nursing practice, 25(6), e12785.
Toledano-González, A., Labajos-Manzanares, T., & Romero-Ayuso, D. (2019). Well-being, self-efficacy and independence in older adults: a randomized trial of occupational therapy. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 83, 277-284.
Discussion # 2 :
Internal and External Criticism of Self-Efficacy Theory
Self-Efficacy theory explains an individual’s belief in their abilities to execute an activity successfully. The theory states that if a person has a strong belief in their ability to perform a task, then that person will be more likely to perform the task with success. Self-efficacy can also be thought of as having a “can do” attitude and having confidence in one’s abilities. During the development of this theory, Bandura wished to examine the factors that contribute to different individual abilities when conducting an activity or a decision (Klassen & Klassen, 2018). The theory of self-efficacy has been criticized for using both internal and external evaluation processes.
Based on internal criticism, self-efficacy theory has been shown to be very important in determining an individual’s abilities. For example, the theory can be used in nursing to understand a nurse’s strengths and determine the areas they need to improve. In addition, the theory has been clearly defined due to its high levels of conceptual clarity. Research by Klassen and Klassen (2018) posited that the concept of self-efficacy theory is clearly defined, which offers limited time for a person to understand their goal. In addition, the theory is supported by adequate empirical support due to different studies and supplements on the same. Nonetheless, the theory has been criticized for its risk of confusion regarding confidence and self-esteem. Since the theory of efficacy is used in understanding an individual’s ability, it may hinder the understanding of a person’s self-esteem levels.
The external criticism of the theory focuses on the authenticity of the theory and how genuine the theory is. According to Schweder and Raufelder, D. (2022), the self-efficacy theory is generalized across different demographics. This indicates that many studies have found the theory applicable to different ethnicities and cultural contexts, enhancing its reliability. The theory has also been used in different research fields, such as education and nursing, explaining the different behaviors portrayed in such settings. Specifically, it is used in monitoring and explaining healthy behavior such as medication adherence, smoking cessation and active participation in physical activity. In addition, the theory has quality predictive validity, which makes it easier to establish an effective way of predicting human behavior based on different circumstances (Schweder & Raufelder, 2022). This increases the reliability of the information offered by this theory and helps make better and more reliable conclusions about human behavior. Nonetheless, the mechanism of the theory is weak as it barely explains the underlying process used in the making of the theory. Even the mechanism used barely explains all the concepts of the theory.
Klassen, R. M., & Klassen, J. R. (2018). Self-efficacy beliefs of medical students: a critical
review. Perspectives on medical education, 7, 76-82.
Schweder, S., & Raufelder, D. (2022). Students’ interest and self-efficacy and the impact of
changing learning environments. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 70, 102082.