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PeerResponse 1:The 2 models of change that I chose to discuss are the transtheoretical model and the socioecological model. Each model has a different approach to change, but they also complement each other well. The transtheoretical model focuses on the idea that behavior is changed on a continuum of 5 definitive stages of motivation to change. The 5 stages are precontemplation which is the stage before change is a thought. Contemplation where the person has a desire to make a behavior change soon which would be up to 6 months away. Preparation is the stage where the pros outweigh the cons to change a particular behavior in the coming future. Action stage is where there are efforts made to change. The last stage is the maintenance phase where the person has been consistent with the change and continues to work on not relapsing. The key to this model of change is the concept of change being fluid and that the individual may move up and down the different stages multiple times before they have effectively changed a behavior. It is not a linear process and once you reach the maintenance phase that does not mean that you may not be in the precontemplation phase again on the same behavior. Socioecological model focuses more on the individual person and the social and environmental factors that are barriers to change and contribute to causes of negative or unhealthy behaviors. This model talks about the varying intrapersonal, interpersonal, cultural norms, social networks and public and federal policies that contribute to reasons change has not been made. Both models discuss behavior change with one being more focused on how change is made and the other on why change is not made. The best example that I can think of to show how both models are used together would be in the case of substance abuse. An individual with addiction has many factors that are mentioned in the socioecological model that hinder their ability to change their habits and addictions. There are many personal, social, environmental and public and federal factors that hinder an individual’s choice to change. The person may live in an area where drug use is rampant and may even come from a family of addicts. They may only socialize with addicts and frequent places that hinder their ability to want to change. According to the transtheoretical model when the individual has no thoughts of changing, perhaps due to their circumstances, they are in the precontemplation phase. Some people can fight against their social and economic status and enter the next stages of change.

Respond to your peers by evaluating the strength of the argument for implementing the project.  Was this an important project based on need (the epidemiologic significance)? Please limit this to 2-3 paragraphs

Peer Response2:The Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model are based on individual behavior patterns and subjective health choices. Behavioral patterns, such as smoking, diet, and exercise account for nearly 40% of premature deaths (Nash et al., 2019). With the advancements of technology, and EHR data collection, it is easier to establish trends that account for correlation between personal health behavior and health outcomes (Nash et al., 2019). Both models focus on individual behavior, however personal health affects relationships and communities. Improving individual well-being and behavior can have a positive impact on population health.

The Health Belief Model focuses on individual perceptions of expectations and threats. Individual perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers are the motivators behind health care decisions (Turner et al., 2004). Cues to action are external factors that can influence a behavior. Such cues to action could be information received by healthcare providers, educational sessions, social media campaigns (Turner et al., 2004). Self-efficacy is another aspect to include as a person’s belief on their own ability to change their behavior (Turner et al., 2004). The example that Turner et al. (2004) discuss is related to osteoporosis prevention and highlights the impact that a health prevention program can have on the changes of lifestyle and behaviors of the target group. The authors accounted for individual motivators and barriers to increase perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and self-efficacy to minimize risk of osteoporosis.

The Health Promotion Model, by contrast outlines three groups- individual characteristics and experiences, behavior specific cognitions and situational influences. While this theory is still greatly focused on individual perceptions, it recognizes the influence family, peers, social norms, and situational variations have on outcomes. The example that Srof and Velsor-Friedrich (2006) discuss highlights the extent interpersonal influences and vicarious experience affect adolescent’s physical activity level.

Nash, D. B., Skoufalos, A., Fabius, R. J., & Oglesby, W. H. (2019). Population health: Creating a culture of wellness : creating a culture of wellness. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Srof, B. J., & Velsor-Friedrich, B. (2006). Health promotion in adolescents: a review of Pender’s health promotion model. Nursing science quarterly19(4), 366–373.

Turner, L. W., Hunt, S. B., DiBrezzo, R., & Jones, C. (2004). Design and implementation of an osteoporosis prevention program using the health belief model. American Journal of Health Studies, 19(2), 115-121.

Respond to your peers by evaluating the strength of the argument for implementing the project.  Was this an important project based on need (the epidemiologic significance)? Please limit this to 2-3 paragraphs

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